Toksoy G, Durmus H, Aghayev A, et al. Mutation spectrum of 260 dystrophinopathy patients from Turkey and important highlights for genetic counseling. Neuromuscular Disord 2019
We genetically evaluated 260 dystrophinopathy patients from Turkey. Karyotyping as an initial test in female patients, followed stepwise by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and by targeted next-generation sequencing of DMD revealed definitive genetic diagnoses in 214 patients (82%), with gross deletions/duplications in 153 (59%), pathogenic sequence variants in 60 (23%), and X-autosome translocation in one. Seven of the gross and 27 of the sequence variants found novel. In silico prediction, co-segregation and transcript assays supported the pathogenic nature of the novel silent (p.Lys534=) and the splice site (c.4345-12C>G) alterations. From a total of 189 singleton cases, 154 (82%) had pathogenic alterations. From 138 of those who had maternal carrier testing, 68 out of 103 (66%) showed gross and 11 out of 35 (31%) showed small pathogenic variants. This suggests that the de novo occurrences in DMD appear approximately 2.1 times more frequently in meiotic unequal crossing-over than in uncorrected replication errors. Our study also disclosed three mothers as obligate gonadal mosaic carriers. Family-based investigation of dystrophinopathy patients is crucial for the ascertainment of novel or rare variants and also for counseling and follow-up care of the families.