Resveratrol Decreases Oxidative Stress by Restoring Mitophagy and Improves the Pathophysiology of Dystrophin-Deficient mdx Mice

Sebori R, Kuno A, Hosoda R, Hayashi T, Horio Y. Resveratrol Decreases Oxidative Stress by Restoring Mitophagy and Improves the Pathophysiology of Dystrophin-Deficient mdx Mice. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2018;2018:9179270.

Sebori_2018_Oxid Med Cell Longev Oct 29;2018;9179270

Study assessing the effect of resveratol (a compound that acts on oxidative stress) in the mdx mouse. Positive effects on several parameters were observed. In vitro, several effects were enhanced by co-treatment with another compound. The article, however, selectively shows which tests showed beneficial effects.

Abstract

We previously showed that treatment with resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), an activator of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 at 4 g/kg food for 32 weeks, significantly decreased the muscular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and ameliorated the pathology of mdx mice, an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we treated mdx mice with various doses of resveratrol (0.04, 0.4, and 4 g/kg food) for 56 weeks and examined the effects on serum creatine kinase levels and physical activities. Because resveratrol promotes autophagy, we also investigated whether autophagy including mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is involved in resveratrol’s effects. Autophagy/mitophagy-related genes and autophagic flux were downregulated in the muscle of mdx mice, and these phenomena were reversed by resveratrol with significant ROS reduction. Resveratrol at 4 g/kg food reduced the number of immature myofibers containing central nuclei and fine fibers < 400 mum(2) and increased that of thicker myofibers in the quadriceps, suggesting that resveratrol decreased myofiber wasting and promoted muscular maturation. Accordingly, resveratrol at 0.4 g/kg food reduced the creatine kinase levels to one-third of those in untreated mdx mice and significantly increased the animals’ physical activities. In C2C12 myoblast cells, resveratrol promoted mitophagy and eliminated mitochondria containing high superoxide levels. The clearance of damaged mitochondria and ROS reduction by resveratrol was completely suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine) and by knocking down Atg5 or Pink1, essential genes for autophagy and mitophagy, respectively. Thus, resveratrol is a potential therapeutic agent for DMD, and the clearance of damaged mitochondria probably contributes to its action.

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